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Stuttering

Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with […]

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Stroke

A Stroke, sometimes referred to as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult (CVI), or colloquially brain attack is the loss of brain function due to a disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This disturbance is due to either ischemia (lack of blood flow) or hemorrhage. Ischemia is caused by either blockage of a […]

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Stomach Ulcers and Reflux Disease

A Peptic Ulcer is a distinct breach in the mucosal lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the first part of the small intestine (duodenal ulcer), a result of caustic effects of acid and pepsin in the lumen. Histologically, peptic ulcer is identified as necrosis of the mucosa which produces lesions equal to or greater […]

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Spinal Cord Injury

A Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) refers to any injury to the spinal cord that is caused by trauma instead of disease. Depending on where the spinal cord and nerve roots are damaged, the symptoms can vary widely, from pain to paralysis to incontinence. Spinal cord injuries are described at various levels of “incomplete”, which can […]

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Spina Bifida

Spina Bifida (Latin: “split spine”) is a developmental congenital disorder caused by the incomplete closing of the embryonic neural tube. Some vertebrae overlying the spinal cord are not fully formed and remain unfused and open. If the opening is large enough, this allows a portion of the spinal cord to protrude through the opening in […]

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Speech-Language Impairments

Speech and Language Impairment are basic categories that might be drawn in issues of communication involve hearing, speech, language, and fluency. A speech impairment is characterized by difficulty in articulation of words. Examples include stuttering or problems producing particular sounds. Articulation refers to the sounds, syllables, and phonology produced by the individual. Voice, however, may […]

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Sleep Disorders

A Sleep Disorder, or Somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental, social and emotional functioning. Polysomnography is a test commonly ordered for some sleep disorders. Disruptions in sleep can be caused by a variety of issues, […]

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Skin Disorders

A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system — the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands. The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment. Conditions of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of […]

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Sickle Cell Anemia

Sickle-Cell Disease (SCD) or Sickle-Cell Anaemia (SCA) or Drepanocytosis, is a hereditary blood disorder, characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape. Sickling decreases the cells’ flexibility and results in a risk of various life-threatening complications. This sickling occurs because of a mutation in the haemoglobin gene. Individuals with one copy […]

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